Polyurea Waterproofing – Versatility Close To Perfection

Polyurea is an extremely strong and durable coating which can be applied to virtually any substrate. Externally polyurea represents a synergy of plastic and rubber. The material boasts unsurpassed high chemical resistance to oil, mild acids and alkalis as well as unprecedentedly high rates of abrasion.

Polyurea is applied to the surfaces through spraying; it can be toned in any color, even metallic. In addition, virtually any polyurea type can easily handle ultraviolet radiation, meaning that its physical and chemical properties do not change under prolonged exposure to UV. However, not every polyurea retains color when exposed to UV radiation. Coloring also resists UV radiation effectively, it doesn’t turn yellow under ultraviolet light.

An excellent adhesion to an overwhelming majority of materials and coatings allows taking advantage of polyurea at any even very old coatings and surfaces. Moreover, urea can be applied to most plastics, including polystyrene (it should be noted that polystyrene foams may be covered only compounds that do not contain any solvents or even in miniscule amounts).

All of the above makes polyurea very popular in the sector of protective and decorative coatings. Very high price is more than compensated by extremely long service life – this is where an investment pays for itself to the full extent. The wear resistance of the coating is so high that it is almost impossible to erase. The revolutionary properties of the neoteric material are confirmed by an increased interest from consumers. Thus, Britannia Paints Company reports its Polyshield (polyurea-based product designed for roof coating and roof waterproofing) is the company’s bestselling product in 2014.

Since urea is applied by spraying, the economic benefit on surfaces with curved shapes (figures, sculptures, monuments, pools, fences, etc.) is quite obvious. While finishing of flat surfaces can be conducted with a wide choice of cheap and at the same time durable materials (various metal and plastic panels), the surfaces with complex geometries require very hard work, more waste and special materials, which significantly affects the price per square meter of finished surface.

Coating application peculiarities

To ensure high-quality coating, special attention should be paid to leveling the surface, which is planned to be covered with polyurea. Attention should be paid to the competence of staff and the quality of the equipment used. Polyurea is typical for the same comfort and ease of application to the surface of the wood, concrete, metal, bricks and other building materials. Even at high humidity and extreme temperatures coating is possible without cracking or blistering, offering smooth and elastic shape. Lifetime warranty typically varies in the range of 50-70 years.

The desired layer thickness (0.5-2.5 mm) can be applied in one turn, which distinguishes from many alternative polymer coatings, which are applied in thin layers over a few times, for each layer performing the intermediate drying. In view of this characteristics and rapid curing performance is greatly increased by several times – there is almost no downtime during the operation.

Industrial-scale Cleaning: Ultrasound Method Set In A Place

Ultrasonic cleaning is largely used in large scale and mass production facilities for removal of grease, oil, scale, rust, polish residues, loose layers of soot and other contaminants from the surfaces of small parts of complex configuration prior to coating. As a rule, the objects chosen to be subjected to ultrasonic cleaning feature deaf and threaded holes, deep depressions, grooves, hard to reach areas, etc, in other words,

Ultrasonic cleaning of parts from oil and grease contamination is oftentimes carried out in an aqueous alkaline solution. The choice of formulation depends on the nature and properties of the contaminants and the material from which the manufactured parts.

These compositions in some given amount include caustic soda, soda ash, sodium silicate, trisodium phosphate, potassium potassium bichromate, surfactants and etc. In order to reduce the viscosity of contamination and better action of the solution, the bath temperature should be warmed up to 55-60°C. The solution is partially or completely heated through the absorption of the ultrasound energy. Bath can also have its own heating and cooling systems.

Purified items washed in hot water are blown with compressed air until complete drying. Steel parts, if required, are passivated in sodium nitrite. Ultrasonic cleaning is carried out by corrosion in acid solutions and in water. The compositions of acid solutions as diverse use them depending on the material of the workpiece. These solutions include various combinations and amounts of sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric and hydrofluoric acids, sodium chloride, calcium fluoride, potassium fluoride, and other substances. Prior to ultrasonic cleaning, to soften the scale and oxides and for better penetration into the pores of the cavitation bubbles can be subjected to etching.

Paint, enamel and resin surfaces of the parts are removed in ultrasonic baths with organic solvents: fuel (gasoline, acetone, benzene) and nonflammable-tetrachloride, pentachloride and trichloride ethylene materials.Depending on the composition and properties of impurities ultrasonic cleaning lasts from several tens of seconds to several minutes.

The equipment

Installations for ultrasonic cleaning consist of vibration sources, power supplies and bath or unit. The source of the vibrations are usually electromechanical, piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers. Power supplies converters are alternators of ultrasonic frequency. Some companies take advantage of innovative, patented technologies: thus, Hilsonic, one of the largest ultrasonic cleaner manufacturers, is known for its advanced protection mechanisms, installed in mid and high-end class equipment, which guarantees long years of trouble-free functioning and naturally a prolonged warranty.

Ultrasonic cleaning baths are typically made of stainless steel, with acid and alkali-resistant rubber coating. Ultrasound machines, in which all the operations are mechanized, processing the materials with cleaning products (washing, cleaning, passivation, secondary lavage) can also be used.

Ultrasonic method provides a high quality surface finish, its use reduces the consumption of chemical materials and the use of expensive organic solvents. The main disadvantages are: the need for large electrical capacity, operational complexity and high cost of electrical equipment and appliances; plus problems may occur when cleaning truly bulky items.

Extremely Deep Borehole Drilling

The most deep-seated gas-bearing layer in Europe lies in Magossa (Northern Italy) at the depth of 6100m, while the deepest industrial gas production borehole (7460m) is located Texas , USA.

A decent visual representation of the modern super-deep borehole and its equipment is available at the example of one of the deepest wells in the world – Beida site drilled in the state of Oklahoma. The well depth equals 9159 m. The drilling works began in 1970 and lasted for 1.5 years. The height of the rig is 43.3 m, load capacity – 908 tons. Drawworks power equals 2000 kW, and each of the two mud pumps – 1000 kW. The total capacity of the ground circulation system for the mud is 840m; the wellhead blowout valve operates with a pressure of 105.5 MPa.

The biggest-mounted drilling rig floating platforms are considered to be the ones developed by Aker H-6e, produced since 2009 by the Norwegian company Aker Drilling. For example, the first models of this series of semi-submersible were drilling platforms Aker Barents and Aker Spitsbergen with a working deck area of 6300 m2 and drilling capabilities up to 10km in water depths of up to 3 km.

Borehole drilling innovative trends

The general trend of oil and gas extraction from deep-seated horizons can be illustrated by the following figures. Just 20 years ago the greater share of oil (66%) was extracted from the youngest Cenozoic rocks. The older Mesozoic rocks mined provided 19% of the oil, and ancient Paleozoic rocks oil extraction share equaled 15%. Now the situation has changed: the main suppliers of oil are now considered to be Mesozoic rocks, while Paleozoic rocks occupy the second place.

Thus, one of the tasks of drilling ultra-deep wells is to find oil and gas horizons at greater depths. Only the super-deep drilling can put an end to the controversy between the organic and inorganic hypotheses for the origin of oil. Finally, super-deep borehole drilling is a prosperous direction as for a more detailed study of the Earth’s interior. After all, today we know more about open space rather than about the insides.

The industry gets an extra impulse due to technology innovators, such as EGS Company (European Geophysical Services), based in United Kingdom. Being a seasoned expert in geophysics and borehole drilling tasks, the company develops and enhances the approaches, thus pushing the business level industry to the next level. The business cooperates with both governmental and private enterprises, so feel free to get in touch with the company reps if you are looking to outsource a borehole drilling mission of any complexity.

Ultra deep drilling explained

Drilling ultra-deep wells is an extremely complicated process; however, the direction is extremely beneficial from geophysics point of reference. It’s a common knowledge that the pressure and temperature is increasing proportionally with the depth. Thus, at a 7000m under the ground even hydrostatic pressure rises to 70 MPa and keeps on increasing with each 1000 meters. Resolving the challenge of creating a pump and supplying liquid that stand out extremely tough conditions will allow deeper digging, which may grant an access to huge volumes of data on the structure of the planet.

Building A Stunning Street Lighting Concept

When thinking over the functionality of an outdoor lighting system, the aesthetic component should still be the key aspect to pay attention to. First and the foremost, let’s figure out the main lighting areas: the entry as well as the main path demand more illumination, than other locations; pay attention to the working areas and make sure the garage driveway is also well-illuminated. A ‘well-illuminated’ area doesn’t necessarily mean that the fixtures of identical performance should be used: feel free to experiment with rays directions, lighting levels and shadows.

Street lighting options to choose from

Consider the option of complementing the system with both individual and multi-source lighting fixtures. Fortunately, the market is oozing with units to complement virtually any style. Pick up the minimalistic LED-based lighting panels to accentuate the modern style or make your choice in favor of victorian streetlightingor heritage streetlightingilluminators. When considering this or that option, remember that forged metal, galvanised and coated metal constructions are considered to be the most reliable ones. However, if you are looking to save on lighting fixtures, you may want to buy some plastic model that still meets the design requirements.

Lighting add-ons to harmonise the look

Upgrade the exterior with additional lighting units to guarantee smooth transitions between bright lighting sources. The walls, railings, columns and many other elements will surely go perfectly with the look. However, avoid placing lighting devices or directing the lights to the windows. For the best choice of traditional street lighting consider the option of Metcraft – the company, finding itself comfortably among the most prominent lighting manufacturers, offering hundreds of products to choose from. Continue reading

The Industrial Use Of Flanges

Flange represents a steel element in the form of a ring and serves to secure the interconnected pipe pieces, fittings vessels, apparatuses, components, units as well as control valves, gates and etc. All the types of flanges can be clearly divided into nine types, according to the execution of the sealing surface. Industrial flanges can be neatly divided into categories based on the nominal size, pressure and specific method of fixation, i.e. attachment.

The functional characteristics of flanges

Flanges play a crucial role in assembling of pipelines of various diameters, technological equipment and complex of individual nodes. At first glance, flanges production is something straightforward, not involving plenty of industries. However, considering the example of a Birmingham-based company AlexanderComley, one will notice that custom stainless steel flanges, bespoke flanges and butt weld fittings uk production is demanded by moneyed oil, gas, petrochemical and even defense industries.  The production of tubesheets, tightly connected with flanges manufacturing, is the second demanded service according to AlexanderComley marketers.

Bespoke flanges may be produced in the form a separate parts, as well as components of more complex systems. The flange is typically attached to a source element by the means of welding or in tandem with the other flange by bolting.

Continue reading

Maintaining The Specified Air Parameters In Underground Parking Lots

To maintain microclimatic regime in car parking docs a range of parking ventilation systems can be implemented, e.g.:

  • Artificial and natural extract of fresh air
  • Artificial and natural inflow hoods
  • Mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation

A completely natural ventilation complex is rarely installed in car underground car lots, because such systems largely dependent on weather conditions, plus they demonstrative poor performance during peak hours, when air exchange is demanded most.

A mixed ventilation (natural and mechanical ventilation) type is commonly used on semi-open parking lots, while a completely mechanical system is mounted in covered parking facilities.

The presence of CO (or carbon monoxide) components in the air may be dangerous for the health and even lives of people. Carbon monoxide is released during the process of burning, but in the cities and parking lots in particular, the main sources of hazardous gas generation is represented by automotive internal combustion engines. Carbon monoxide is dangerous because a human cannot sense of smell it, naturally taking no take steps to leave the danger zone. CO entering the lungs rapidly enters the blood and gets in contact with the hemoglobin, whereby the oxygen transfer is blocked at the cellular level, causing asphyxiation.

The ventilation management is oftentimes automated to optimse the performance of the mechanisms. Keeping the car park ventilation system enabled permanently, even with a small number of cars parked, is a waste of money. A decent ventilation system is packed with automatic sensors and controllers, so the system can turn on the necessary component separately at any time, for example, based on the analysis of air on CO presence.

The Benefits Of GRC-based Cladding Panels

Glass reinforced cladding panels are used mainly for architectural purposes and provide a spectacular opportunity for the expression of individuality in design, which no material can offer. A rare combination of features and capabilities of glass reinforced concrete allows:

  • Creating non-standard products customized for non-standard buildings
  • Creating modular elements for serial unified construction
  • Using GRC as a facing material in new facade panels mounted directly on top of the old building’s facade

Technically, this can be implemented with respect to any individual case on the basis of at least three of the following solutions:

  • Utilising panels in the form of thin GRC shells with stiffeners
  • Utilising GRC thin shells, mechanically fastened to steel mounting frames which are then attached to the frame of the building (e.g. ventilated facades)
  • Utilising GRC shells that act as permanent formwork

Carefully constructed molds made of metal, wood, plastic or synthetic rubber give almost limitless opportunities for diversity of surface finishing, from the very strict textured patterns to the most bizarre shapes, elements and ornaments.

The combination of the basics of white or gray cement with the addition of small amounts of inorganic pigments, as well as specially selected by color sand and other aggregates from different parts of the world, creates a wide palette of colors that meets the needs of the most demanding architects.

The set of techniques for applying GRC-based materials is characterised by terrific diversity: from the most simple to the most advanced. An already molded object with a base of gray cement can be colored with a permanent coating. However, the material introduced in GRC products and forming the front finishing layer does not require special care, except for cleaning.

Complex Test Rigs Systems: The Principles Of Work

To shorten the time needed for adjustment and launching the automated systems integrated the complex test rigs are created or purchased. These rigs are designed for specific systems and allow overcoming dozens of significant issues that arise during commissioning and start-up, plus it enables the personnel to eliminate inaccuracies in project planning.

Troubleshooting the errors, associated with the complexity of conjugation with the technical means of computer control and management of the facility, requires considerable time and effort. Therefore, the device system is subjected to close to real and extreme conditions on the test rigs. The tests imply verifying the correctness of computer interaction with the sensors, actuators and devices displaying various parameters; input, processing and output of information; algorithms and programs.

In the test program on the rig a lot of attention is attached to checking the immunity of signaling channels. The effect of interference is investigated, and the areas of reliable operation of the system in terms of noise in the coefficients and their suppression in the signal path are monitored. Basing on the effectiveness of the shielding lines, the best combination of ground screens and chains of transmission channels is chosen.

Comprehensive technology rig eliminates any interference due to the presence of electric and magnetic noise in the room where the computer is established. Furthermore, crosstalk can also be identified.

The process described, especially in aerospace manufacturing or aero tooling, typically includes a full range of computers, information sources (sensors, control panels, etc.), control receivers and display devices. The test equipment can also be complemented with devices generating additional signal interference.

Why Do Metallurgy Companies Nourish Interest In Scrap?

A permanent high demand in scrap is explained by the peculiarities of steelmaking technology. The production of steel in open-hearth furnaces, basic oxygen or electric furnaces requires blending scrap with cast iron; and the higher the steel grade, the greater amount of scrap is required.

The collection and processing of ferrous metals naturally became a separate branch of steel industry, and the high scrap metal prices are explained not only by the increase in steel, but also by the depletion of conventional ferrous scrap sources.

The utilisation of scrap metal is a complicated process, as ferrous scrap production attracts attention of not only large corporations, finding themselves on top buyer positions, but also of small businesses. Therefore, when a scrap metal dealer purchases scrap metal from small enterprises, it leads to an increase of the share of low metal category in the total weight of recyclables. In turn, the load on the press equipment leads to their accelerated wear and excessive energy consumption. In addition, the rising prices for fuel and lubricants increase the cost of delivery, which results in more significant expenses. Purchasing ferrous scrap from industrial enterprises is not always characterised by high level involvement by owners in the implementation of rhythmic deliveries.

Despite all the difficulties and current market stagnation in various regions, scrap metal industry will keep on functioning as long as metallurgical industry will exist. The collection and processing of scrap is an obligatory link in the technological chain of steel production. Another strong argument in support of such an optimistic focus is still a way more competitive price of scrap metal in comparison with raw natural resources.